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Polish

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Polish

This document uses standard Polish pronunciation.

The direction of writing is upward ().

The alphabet

Pronunciation rules

Voiced and unvoiced consonants

Gemination

When two same sounds are geminated in pronunciation, they are also geminated in writing. This usually means two same letters standing next to to each other, but not always – consider „zza” [zːa]  but rozziew [rɔzʑɛv] 

One tricky example of the above rules is „miąższ”. „ż” should become unvoiced and so make „sz” geminated but this particular word is pronounced [mʲjɔ̃w̃ʃ] and written 

-i, -ii, -ij

Words ending with „-ia”, „-ja”, „-ea” in nominative change endings to „-i”, „-ii”, or „-ji” in genitive, dative, and locative in Polish grammar. As the rules are not based on pronunciation, in Kaurselyle’u there are only two rules:

  1. after „c”, „dz”, „s”, and „z” the ending „-ja” becomes „-ji”,
  2. otherwise, the ending is „-i”.

Note a tricky case of „żmija”. The stem of this word is „żmi” and ending „-ja” which inflects into „-i”. As a result the inflected word is „żmii” which ends with double „i” but the inflected ending is just „-i”.

Examples

Universal Declaration of Human Rights

⸬               :               ⸬

Wszyscy ludzie rodzą się wolni i równi pod względem swej godności i swych praw. Są oni obdarzeni rozumem i sumieniem i powinni postępować wobec innych w duchu braterstwa.

[fʂɨst͡sɨ lud͡ʑɛ rɔd͡zɔ̃ ɕɛ̃ vɔlɲi i ruvɲi pɔt vzɡlɛndɛ̃m sfɛj ɡɔdnɔɕt͡ɕi i sfɨx praf. sɔ̃ ɔɲi ɔbdaʒɛɲi rɔzumɛm i sumʲɛɲɛm i pɔvʲĩɲːi pɔ.stɛmˈpɔ.vat͡ɕ vɔ.bɛt͡s in.nɨx v duxu bratɛrstfa.]